In this Issue:
Introducing some of the Writers and Editors
Meet some of the contributors to the Pneuma Review
and the other publications of the Pneuma Foundation:
Gene L. Green is an Associate Professor at Wheaton in Deerfield, Ill. He has over 25 years of pastoral service and 12 years of foreign and missionary service. Author of numerous exegetical studies and articles that have appeared in places like the Evangelical Dictionary of Theology
(Revised Edition), edited by Walter Elwell, his article "The Kingdom and the Spirit" appeared in the third issue of the Pneuma Review
(Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring 1999).
Jon Ruthven is an Ordained minister with the Assemblies of God and an Associate Professor of Systematic Theology at Regent University School of Divinity in Virginia Beach, VA. He has been involved with the leadership of the Society of Pentecostal Studies for many years and his book On the Cessation of the Charismata
(Sheffield Academy Press) has been well received among Pentecostal/charismatic scholars. A review of his article "What is Right about the Faith Movement?" (Ministries Today
Jan/Feb 1999) appeared in the Spring 1999 (Vol. 2, No. 2) of the Pneuma Review
. A guest review by Dr. Ruthven of the book The Kingdom and the Power: Are Healing and Spiritual Gifts Used by Jesus and the Early Church Meant for the Church Today? A Biblical Look at How to Bring the Gospel to the World with Power
, Grieg and Springer, eds., was published in the Fall 1999 (Vol. 2, No. 4) issue. His enriching article "Bible Answers About Continuing Spiritual Gifts for your Non-Charismatic Friends" is coming up in the Winter 2000 issue (Vol. 3, No. 1). His homepage is: http://home.regent.edu/ruthven/ruthhome.html
Raul Mock is the Executive Editor of the Pneuma Review
and Executive Director of the Pneuma Foundation. Raul is a licensed minister with the Association of Evangelical Gospel Assemblies and an instructor at Grace Life Ministry Institute.
Murray Hohns is a retired civil engineer and author on pastoral staff at the largest church in Hawaii. He is also involved with his fellowship's (International Church of the Foursquare Gospel) national administration. He was a founding member of the Society for Pentecostal Studies and attended Fuller Theological Seminary when he lived on the West Coast. He is a Contributing Editor to the Pneuma Review
Joseph Joslin is a Contributing Editor to the Pneuma Review
. Joe is a woodcraftsman and business owner. He and his wife lead a care group at First Assembly of God in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Kevin Williams is a Messianic pastor of Adatz Eretz Chaim (Tree of Life) Congregation in Grand Rapids, Michigan. He is author of the "Messianic Foundations" series that has appeared in the Pneuma Review
since issue 2 (Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1999).
Richard Riss is an instructor at Zarepath Bible Institute and is completing postgraduate studies at Drew University. Author of multiple books on Pentecostal church history, his series "Tongues and Other Miraculous Gifts From the Second to Nineteenth Centuries" concluded in the Fall 1999 issue of the Pneuma Review
* The next issue of the Pneuma Informer
will include more introductions to writers and editors.
Excerpts from the Fall 1999 issue (Vol 2 No 4) of the Pneuma Review
"I was filled with the Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues, and I have exercised this prayer language for 35 years. . . .As I have sought to share my experience and knowledge of the Baptism in the Holy Spirit, the majority of Christians worldwide have not readily accepted this experience or myself."
--Murray Hohns from his editorial, comments on Robert Grave's article "The Focus of the Charismatic Experience" that appeared in the Summer 1999 issue (Vol 2 No 3) of the Pneuma Review
When the Pneuma Review asked author and church historian William De Arteaga about the common factors he saw in revivals occurring around the world, one of the things he said was:
Revivals that we are having now all over the world have broken out in charismatic communities which already have experience in the Gifts of the Spirit, but few have had experience with the manifestations. Manifestations, or as Jonathan Edwards called them, "exercises," were common to older revival, to the Wesleyan revival, to the Great Awakening, and to the Second Great Awakening. Nothing that is happening now has not been done before. We have simply have little or no human memory of it. Our older Christians can remember something about the "holy rollers" falling "under the power" but the laughter thing is beyond human memory and can be found only (but clearly) in the historical record.
"Just What is the Nature of the Prayer Language?"
from the Praying in the Spirit
Series by Robert Graves.
What exactly is the nature of the prayer language? Is it an emotional or ecstatic utterance beyond the speaker's control? Is it a language or is it gibberish? If it is a language, must it be an actual foreign language?
The truth of the matter is that the prayer language may be used with the same emotional outpouring elicited by opening a can of soup or feeding the cat. Tongues observer Morton Kelsey writes that "one does not have to turn an emotional hair in order to speak in tongues" (Tongues
, 145). The believer does not wait until his emotions are whipped into a frenzy before praising God with his heart language. He speaks quietly or reverently or joyfully just as he does with every expression of prayer and praise, and the words come every bit as naturally.
When the apostle Paul placed certain restrictions upon tongues, he was addressing those Corinthian believers whose practice of tongues monopolized or disrupted the service and perhaps annoyed or baffled unlearned Christians or unsaved onlookers. Paul was concerned with order and edification.
One cannot read the fourteenth chapter of 1 Corinthians without seeing that Paul was of the opinion that the Christian controls tongues-speaking; tongues-speaking does not control the Christian.
There are anti-charismatics who argue heatedly against a prayer language that transcends our natural vocabulary. But why would God limit us to such a feeble word treasury? Many people have difficulty communicating simple things. How can they--or we--possibly express those ineffable feelings that well up from time to time within our innermost beings? Until the manifestation of tongues was recovered from relative obscurity Christians employed groans, sighs, and cries. How valuable these are! And how much more valuable that which God expressly gave to the Church and placed His seal of approval on!
Tongues-speaking is a spirit or heart language in that it does not originate in our understanding but in our spirit (I Corinthians 14:15). For the same reason, charismatic Presbyterian J. Rodman Williams calls it a transcendent language (Gift
, pp. 29, 133): It transcends the limited human capacities of earthly languages. It would seem that its personal edifying value also transcends that of prayer in our native tongue. It has also been called a love language because it results in praise, adoration, worship, and exaltation of our beloved Lord.
In the fifth and final installment of the series by church historian Richard Riss called "Tongues and Other Miraculous Gifts in the Second Through Nineteenth Centuries," he says:
Because of its proximity to our own time, the nineteenth century was filled with various incidents of the operation of prophetic gifts for which we still have considerable documentation. In Karlshuld, Bavaria, for example, under the Roman Catholic parish priest Johann Evangelist Georg Lutz, a revival came about in 1827. One day in Lent of that year, his church was thronged with parishioners who came desiring to confess their sins and enter upon a new life. On February 20, 1828 these people spoke in prophetic utterances, the substance of this prophesying being the second advent, the restoration of spiritual gifts of the primitive church, and the early ministries including that of apostles.
Gifts of the Spirit were also reported to have been experienced in Scotland in 1830. In late March of that year, Mary Campbell of Fernicarry, who had lain sick with consumption for some time, began to seek the Lord with her sister and a friend, "spending the whole day in humiliation, and fasting, and prayer before God, with a special respect to the restoration of the gifts." According to a description of the events given by Edward Irving:
When in the midst of their devotion, the Holy Ghost came with mighty power upon the sick woman as she lay in her weakness, and constrained her to speak at great length, and with superhuman strength, in an unknown tongue, to the astonishment of all who heard, and to her own great edification and enjoyment in God.
A few weeks later, on April 144, 1830, Mary McDonald, a friend of Mary Campbell, was healed of a long-standing illness after James, her brother, had commanded her to "arise, and stand upright," and she obeyed. James then wrote a letter to Mary Campbell, commanding her "in the name of the Lord to arise," which she did, completely healed of her consumption. Immediately after her recovery, Mary Campbell visited the McDonald home, "declaring herself perfectly whole." Soon after this, both James MacDonald and his brother George spoke in tongues.
Other accounts of prophetic gifts and tongues in the nineteenth century abound. One summary of such phenomena was compiled by Stanley H. Frodsham in the first chapter of his book With Signs Following
. A discussion of all of his examples is beyond the scope of this paper, but the frequency of such phenomena during the eighteenth century suggests that earlier eras of the history of the church may also have been filled with a as many similar phenomena, of which records are no longer available. Perhaps it is appropriate to exclaim with John the evangelist that there are also many other things which Jesus did, which if they were written in detail, even the world itself would not contain the books about them.